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You can also find a table of all the Low Emission Zone cities and emissions and their standards on our Quick Guide. You can search this table, filter by vehicle type, or order by column of interest.

Most countries with LEZs have similar schemes in the different cities, so the national overview can be useful.

Overview of Low Emission Zones (LEZs)

There are many Low Emission Zones (LEZs) in many European countries. Low Emission Zones are areas where access by vehicles is limited by their emissions. They are implemented to improve air quality.  Air pollution is responsible for 310 000 premature deaths in Europe each yeari, more than caused by road accidentsii, with human health cost the European economy between €427 and €790 billion per yeariii.

This website, www.urbanaccessregulations.eu, gives all the information you need to know about LEZs.

Which vehicles are affected? The following table gives an overview:

Vehicle Type  

LEZ

Current Emissions standard 2016

Future Emissions standard

Lorries only

Netherlands

Euro 4

 

Motorway A12, Austria

Euro 3 (August 2016)

 

Austria regional

Euro 1-3

 

Mont Blanc Tunnel, FR/IT

Euro 3

 

Prague, CZ

 

Euro 3-4

Heavy duty vehicles

Finland

Euro 3 for buses and Euro 5 for garbage trucks (dustbin lorries)

 

London, UK

Euro 4 (PM)

2020: Euro 6

Denmark

Fit filter if less than Euro 4

 

Sweden

8 years old / Euro 4

8 years old / Euro 5, 6

Vehicles with 4+ wheels

Belgium, Antwerp

2017:
petrol: Euro 1
diesel: Euro 3 with particle filter

2020:
petrol: Euro 2
diesel: Euro 5

Brussels

 

2018:
diesel: Euro 2

Germany

Euro 4 (PM) & Euro 1 Petrol; only: Neu-Ulm Euro 3

 

Lisbon, Portugal

Euro 1 or Euro 2

Planned: Euro 3 all (date not specified)

Greece, Athens

Euro 1/Euro 4

 

London

 

2020: Euro 6 diesel, Euro 4 petrol, Motorcycle, moped Euro 3

Netherlands

Utrecht cars & vans must be first registered after 1/1/2001 (Euro 3).

Rotterdam diesel Euro 3, petrol Euro 1

 

 

 

Rotterdam 2018 diesel Euro 4, petrol Euro 1

Amsterdam 2017 Euro 3 vans, 2018 also taxis & coaches

Norway

 

2017: Bergen, Oslo, Trondheim are likely to have restrictions for pre-Euro 6 vehicles

All vehicles

Italy

Euro 1-4 / no 2-stroke motorcycles

Euro 2-4 / no 2-stroke motorcycles

Paris

Heavy duty >3.5T Euro 1

July 2016 all vehicles Euro 1; 2017-20 Euro 2, 3, 4 gradually regulated

Local buses under agreements

Norwich, UK

Nottingham, UK

Euro 3 (NOx)

Euro 3

 

Oxford, Brighton, UK

Euro V

 

Vans

London, UK

Euro 3 (PM)

 

 

Germany

Euro 2-4 (PM) & Euro 1 Petrol

Euro 3-4 (PM) & Euro 1 Petrol

Italy

Euro 1-4 / no 2-stroke motorcycles

Euro 2-4 / no 2-stroke motorcycle

 

The Danish LEZ law also now allows vans to be included, which may happen in the future in Danish cities.

Operating hours: Most LEZs operate permanently. The exemptions are Italy, where LEZs sometimes operate at peak or other selected times; Lisbon and Prague >3.5T LEZ are weekday daytime, Athens is weekday daytime and evening. In addition, some Italian LEZs and Athens LEZ are not in operation all the year, see each city for more details.

Enforcement mechanism: Most LEZs are manually enforced, but cameras and transponders (electronic device that transmits payments to the toll-stations – in French transpondeur) are also used, generally country-by-country, as below:

  • Manual enforcement is used in the Swedish, Austrian motorway and German LEZs.
  • The Dutch LEZs started with manual enforcement but have now moved to camera enforcement
  • Most Italian LEZs are manually enforced however a few have camera or even electronic enforcement, often when combined with another scheme or pedestrian zone.
  • The Danish LEZs set out the 3 manual enforcement methods: Firstly municipal inspectors when lorries are visiting a company; Secondly town traffic wardens checking vehicles parked on the street; Finally, police at routine roadside checks. Both inspectors and traffic wardens can call on the police when needed.
  • The London LEZ and Milan-Ecopass are camera enforced
  • The Norwich and Oxford LEZs (UK) are enforced through agreements with the local bus operators.
  • The planned Norwegian LEZs intend to use the same electronic device system as used for motorway tolls (Autopass), with camera and manual enforcement also possible, as well as cameras to enforce those who do not pay.

Do I have to register before entering?

In Germany, Denmark, and Sweden you will need to buy a sticker. Foreign vehicles are required to register with London’s LEZ (as the national database does not include their details). Entry to the Prague's LEZ is by permit. The Bolzano (Italy) LEZs require stickers and you need to pay to enter the Central Milan 'Area C'. In many cases registration is possible by Internet or post. More information on registering can be found on our  Where do I need to register?
Other LEZs are enforced with cameras reading the vehicle number plates (Netherlands, London), or by police controlling the vehicle papers (Italy, Austrian A12 motorway, Mont Blanc Tunnel), or local agreements with public bus operators (Norwich, Oxford (UK)). Lisbon currently uses police controlling vehicles papers, but is planning more automated enforcement.

Which vehicles are affected where?
Austrian LEZs: lorries over 3.5T
Belgium, Antwerp: all vehicles with four and more wheels

Czech Republic, Prague: lorries over 3.5T or 6T
Denmark: All diesel-powered vehicles above 3.5T

Finland: Buses and garbage trucks (dustbin lorries)
Germany: All vehicles with four wheels
Greece, Athens: All vehicles, vehicles over or under 2.2T

Italy: All vehicles, including mopeds and motorcycles
Italy/France, Mont Blanc tunnel: lorries only

Netherlands: lorries over 3.5 tonnes Gross Vehicle Weight
Portugal, Lisbon: Petrol & diesel, light duty and heavy duty
Sweden: All heavy, diesel-powered trucks and buses
UK, London: Vans and similar over 1.205T unladen, and vehicles over 3.5T GVW
UK: Norwich, Oxford, Brighton: Public service buses only.

Are foreign vehicles affected?

For most LEZs, foreign vehicles are also affected. The exemptions are:
The Netherlands, where only Dutch vehicles are affected.
The bus LEZs in the UK (Norwich, Oxford, Brighton) only affect public buses.
The Athens
LEZ does not affect foreign vehicles.
Some of the Italian LEZs do not affect foreign vehicles, or vehicles accessing hotels in the area can apply for exemptions (contact your hotel). See each city for details.
The Helsinki LEZ only affects buses (local) and garbage trucks (dustbin lorries).

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